Effects of action observation therapy with Otago exercises on balance and quality of life in older adults





Background: Balance problems and falls are prevalent issues, especially among older adults. Otago exercise is one of the interventions applied to the geriatric population to prevent falls and balance problems, The Action observation therapy with the Otago exercise program can be a more beneficial intervention method to decrease the prevalence of falls and balance issues among older people.

Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of Otago exercise in combination with action observation training (AOT) on balance and quality of life among the elderly.

Methods: A randomized clinical trial was conducted on n=54 elderly between 60-80 years and moderate risk of fall Berge balance scale from May 2022 to July 2023. The participants were included in the study after fulfilling the selection criteria. Then the participants were randomly assigned into two AOT plus Otago (n= 27) groups and Otago exercise alone group (n= 27). The static and dynamic balance were assessed with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and Functional Reach Test (FRT) respectively. Additionally, quality of life was measured with the SF-36 questionnaire among older adults. The data was collected at baseline, 6th week, and 12th week.

Results: Significant improvements (p<0.05) were observed in balance and quality of life as measured by the Berg Balance Scale and SF-36 respectively in both intervention groups but did not reveal any significant difference (p≥0.05) between the groups. 

Conclusion: the current study showed no additional effects of action Observation training (AOT) with Otago exercises among the elderly. However, the addition of AOT may improve the balance, physical functioning, and ultimately quality of life among the elderly, if incorporated into routine rehabilitation of this population. 

Clinical trial #: NCT06008665 

Author Biographies

Shah Ahmed, Mehram Shah Rehabilitation Centre, Rawalpindi. Pakistan

Doctor of Physical Therapy 

Farah Manzoor, International Institute of Science Arts and Technology Gujranwala Pakistan.

Assistant Professor & Head of Allied Health Sciences department.

Hafsa Naseem, International Institute of Science, Arts and Technology Gujrawala Pakistan


Amna Qandil Ansari, Mehram Shah Rehabilitation Centre, Rawalpindi. Pakistan

Doctor of Physical Therapy










Research Article